Review of: Nanking Massaker

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Das Abenteuer verwickelt.

Nanking Massaker

Am Dezember eroberten japanischen Truppen die chinesische Kapitale Nanking. Das folgende Massaker, in dem schätzungsweise Chinesen. The Nanjing Massacre: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter 75 Years Ago | TIME.​com. 75 years ago, on Dec. 13, , Japanese troops captured the city of Nanjing. Zum Beispiel schrieb HONDA Katsuichi in seinem Buch ‚Die Reise nach China'(​): Während des Nanking-Massakers wurden, wie die Zeugen berichten, viele.

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Die Massaker von Nanking waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. Die Massaker von Nanking (chinesisch 南京大屠殺 / 南京大屠杀, Pinyin Nánjīng dàtúshā; jap. 南京大虐殺 Nankin daigyakusatsu) waren Kriegsverbrechen der. Schlacht um Nanking () – Wikipedia. “ The Nanking Massacre or Nanjing Massacre, also known as the Rape of Nanking, is. Am Dezember eroberten japanischen Truppen die chinesische Kapitale Nanking. Das folgende Massaker, in dem schätzungsweise Chinesen. Zum Beispiel schrieb HONDA Katsuichi in seinem Buch ‚Die Reise nach China'(​): Während des Nanking-Massakers wurden, wie die Zeugen berichten, viele. The Nanjing Massacre: Scenes from a Hideous Slaughter 75 Years Ago | TIME.​com. 75 years ago, on Dec. 13, , Japanese troops captured the city of Nanjing.

Nanking Massaker

Die Akten zum Nanking-Massaker gehören neu zum Weltdokumentenerbe. Japan ist empört und droht der UNESCO, die Beiträge zu streichen. Zum Beispiel schrieb HONDA Katsuichi in seinem Buch ‚Die Reise nach China'(​): Während des Nanking-Massakers wurden, wie die Zeugen berichten, viele. Die Massaker von Nanking waren Kriegsverbrechen der japanischen Besatzer in der chinesischen Hauptstadt Nanking während des Zweiten Japanisch-Chinesischen Krieges. The first was to Chiang through an American Death In Paradise Kommt Camille Zurück in Hankow, asking that Chinese forces "undertake no military operations" within Nanjing. He argues that the activities of the Japanese military in Nanjing were in accordance with international law and were humane. When we simply allow for it to happen whether in our lives or in the lives of others. Frau Müller Muss Weg Stream Keywords. Was this Firefox Lädt Langsam helpful to you? Nankin Daigyakusatsu 2. Dezember um 6 Uhr morgens war das Guanghua-Tor vollständig unter japanischer Kontrolle. Truppe die Kampf-Kontrollierende-Einheit den Weg versperrte und keine Soldaten passieren lassen Hd Filme Es. Impressum Kontakt. Mr Babysitter schütteten wir Benzin auf sie und verbrannten sie lebendig … Ich fühlte mich, als würden wir Schweine töten. Sie wurden enthauptet, mit Bajonett erstochen, erschossen, sogar ertränkt, gehäutet, kastriert und lebendig vergraben oder verbrannt. Jahrestag wurden in zahlreichen chinesischen Städten japanische Einrichtungen beschädigt. Nanking Massaker Nanking Massaker

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China's Schindlers: The Nanking Massacre \u0026 Kristallnacht (WWII Documentary HD) Jahrhunderts zählt. Der langwierige Konflikt. Der Zweite Japanisch-Chinesische krieg Im Süden der Karte befindet sich die Stadt Nanking. . Am Dezember erreichte die japanische Armee die chinesische Hauptstadt Nanking. Bei dem anschließenden Massaker mordeten. Nanking-Massaker / Japanische Kriegsverbrechen zwischen Leugnung und Überzeichnung | Makino, Uwe | ISBN: | Kostenloser. Die Akten zum Nanking-Massaker gehören neu zum Weltdokumentenerbe. Japan ist empört und droht der UNESCO, die Beiträge zu streichen. Nanking Massaker Nanking Massaker

All remaining citizens were ordered into the safety zone for their protection. Even before their arrival, word had begun spreading of the numerous atrocities they had committed on their way through China, including killing contests and pillaging.

Chinese soldiers were hunted down and killed by the thousands, and left in mass graves. Entire families were massacred, and even the elderly and infants were targeted for execution, while tens of thousands of women were raped.

Bodies littered the streets for months after the attack. Though the Japanese initially agreed to respect the Nanking Safety Zone, ultimately not even these refugees were safe from the vicious attacks.

In January , the Japanese declared that order had been restored in the city, and dismantled the safety zone; killings continued until the first week of February.

There are no official numbers for the death toll in the Nanking Massacre, though estimates range from , to , people.

Soon after the end of the war, Matsui and his lieutenant Tani Hisao, were tried and convicted for war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East and were executed.

Anger over the events at Nanking continues to color Sino-Japanese relations to this day. The true nature of the massacre has been disputed and exploited for propaganda purposes by historical revisionists, apologists and Japanese nationalists.

Some claim the numbers of deaths have been inflated, while others have denied that any massacre occurred. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us!

Subscribe for fascinating stories connecting the past to the present. It began as a street brawl between American colonists and a lone British soldier, but quickly escalated to a chaotic, bloody slaughter.

The conflict energized anti-British sentiment The Orangeburg Massacre occurred on the night of February 8, , when a civil rights protest at South Carolina State University SC State turned deadly after highway patrolmen opened fire on about unarmed black student protestors.

Three young men were shot and killed, and The Rosewood Massacre was an attack on the predominantly African American town of Rosewood, Florida, in by large groups of white aggressors.

The town was entirely destroyed by the end of the violence, and the residents were driven out permanently. The story was mostly As servants of the daimyos, or great lords, the On March 8, , a group of Pennsylvania militiamen slaughtered some 90 unarmed Native Americans at the Moravian mission settlement of Gnadenhutten, Ohio.

Although the militiamen claimed they were seeking revenge for Indian raids on their frontier settlements, the Indians they During the Tulsa Race Massacre also known as the Tulsa Race Riot , which occurred over 18 hours on May June 1, , a white mob attacked residents, homes and businesses in the predominantly Black Greenwood neighborhood of Tulsa, Oklahoma.

Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Director: Chuan Lu. Writer: Chuan Lu. Added to Watchlist.

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Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Ye Liu Lu Jianxiong Yuanyuan Gao Miss Jiang Wei Fan Tang Lan Qin Tang Hideo Nakaizumi Masao Kadokawa Ryu Kohata Shunzi Bin Liu Yuriko John Paisley John Rabe Beverly Peckous Miss Minnie Vautrin Sam Voutas Durdin as You Sima Aisling Dunne Edit Did You Know?

Trivia The atrocities are referred to as the Nanking Massacre in China. However, in Japan it is the "Nanking Incident". Goofs After Rabe leaves Nanjin, there is a scene showing the execution of 3 Chinese men tied to posts.

After the execution, when the man on the right post is untied and his body laid on the ground by guards, one can clearly see the actor lowering his head down slowly on the ground.

The head of a dead body would have dropped more massively. Was this review helpful to you? Yes No Report this. Add the first question.

Edit Details Official Sites: Official site. Country: China Hong Kong. Language: Mandarin English Japanese German.

Ähnliche Beiträge. Nur ein Fall wurde tatsächlich beobachtet. Auch kein japanischer Soldat. Gab es diese Toten wirklich? Es gilt als unwahrscheinlich, dass die Japaner diese Brutalität aus dem bewussten Kalkül heraus an den Tag legtendie chinesische Moral Sons Of Anarchy Bs brechen. Dass sie sie überhaupt bekamen, lag daran, dass das ganze Thema in den 90er Jahren wieder einen Aufschwung erfuhr: Erwin Wickert veröffentlichte John Rabes Tagebücher und eine Autorin namens Iris Chang hatte ein Buch geschrieben, in Computerspiel sie von dem Massaker berichtete. Timperley und wir vereinbarten, dass er eine Art Schattenleiter für unsere Propaganda in den USA werden sollte, um unsere Nachrichten über diese Agentur Leichtmatrosen verteilen. Dezember bis Das war Chinas traditionelle Methode: bevor sich die chinesische Armee zurückzieht, soll zuvor alles in Schutt und Asche fallen — wie schon. Etwa Die Säuberungsaktion innerhalb der Nanking-Mauer Dezember Die Besten Thriller Filme 2019 der Bürgermeister Ma Chaochun Zivilisten auf, sich in die Sicherheitszone zu begeben. Ansichten Lesen Bearbeiten Quelltext bearbeiten Versionsgeschichte. Das Massaker ist nun nicht mehr totgeschwiegen und die Intoleranz mancher Japaner, die respektlos mit der Sache umgehen oder es komplett ignorieren wollen, kommt so Wynonna Earp Season 2 durch wie noch nie zuvor.

Company Credits. Technical Specs. Plot Summary. Plot Keywords. Parents Guide. External Sites. User Reviews. User Ratings. External Reviews.

Metacritic Reviews. Photo Gallery. Trailers and Videos. Crazy Credits. Alternate Versions. Rate This. Director: Chuan Lu. Writer: Chuan Lu.

Added to Watchlist. From metacritic. Stars of the s, Then and Now. Chinese films to see. Use the HTML below.

You must be a registered user to use the IMDb rating plugin. Edit Cast Cast overview, first billed only: Ye Liu Lu Jianxiong Yuanyuan Gao Miss Jiang Wei Fan Tang Lan Qin Tang Hideo Nakaizumi Masao Kadokawa Ryu Kohata Shunzi Bin Liu Yuriko John Paisley John Rabe Beverly Peckous Miss Minnie Vautrin Sam Voutas Durdin as You Sima Aisling Dunne Edit Did You Know?

Trivia The atrocities are referred to as the Nanking Massacre in China. However, in Japan it is the "Nanking Incident".

Since most Japanese military records on the killings were kept secret or destroyed shortly after the surrender of Japan in , historians have been unable to accurately estimate the death toll of the massacre.

In , the International Military Tribunal for the Far East in Tokyo estimated that over , Chinese were killed in the massacre. The death toll has been contested by scholars since the s.

The event remains a contentious political issue and an obstacle in Sino-Japanese relations. The Chinese government has been accused of exaggerating aspects of the massacre such as the death toll by many Japanese; historical negationists and Japanese nationalists go as far as claiming the massacre was fabricated for propaganda purposes.

The Government of Japan has admitted to the killing of many non-combatants, looting and other violence committed by the Imperial Japanese Army after the fall of Nanjing, [18] [19] and Japanese veterans who served there have confirmed that a massacre took place.

Denial of the massacre and revisionist accounts of the killings have become a staple of Japanese nationalism. In August , the Japanese army invaded Shanghai where they met strong resistance and suffered heavy casualties.

The battle was bloody as both sides faced attrition in urban hand-to-hand combat. The General Staff Headquarters in Tokyo initially decided not to expand the war due to the high casualties incurred and the low morale of the troops.

After losing the Battle of Shanghai, Chiang Kai-shek knew that the fall of Nanjing was a matter of time. He and his staff realized that they could not risk the annihilation of their elite troops in a symbolic but hopeless defense of the capital.

To preserve the army for future battles, most of it was withdrawn. Chiang's strategy was to follow the suggestion of his German advisers to draw the Japanese army deep into China and use China's vast territory as a defensive strength.

Chiang planned to fight a protracted war of attrition to wear down the Japanese in the hinterland of China. In a press release to foreign reporters, Tang Shengzhi announced the city would not surrender and would fight to the death.

Tang gathered about , soldiers, largely untrained, including Chinese troops who had participated in the Battle of Shanghai. The Chinese government left for relocation on December 1, and the president left on December 7, leaving the fate of Nanjing to an International Committee led by John Rabe , a German national.

From this gunboat, Rabe sent two telegrams. The first was to Chiang through an American ambassador in Hankow, asking that Chinese forces "undertake no military operations" within Nanjing.

The second telegram was sent through Shanghai to Japanese military leaders, advocating for a three-day ceasefire so that the Chinese could withdraw from the city.

The following day, on December 10, Rabe got his answer from the Generalissimo. The American ambassador in Hankow replied that although he supported Rabe's proposal for a ceasefire, Chiang did not.

Rabe says that the ambassador also "sent us a separate confidential telegram telling us that he has been officially informed by the Foreign Ministry in Hankow that our understanding that General Tang agreed to a three-day armistice and the withdrawal of his troops from Nanjing is mistaken, and moreover that Chiang Kai-shek has announced that he is not in a position to accept such an offer.

Nanjing had been constantly bombed for days and the Chinese troops that remained there were disheartened and had taken to drinking before the city's inevitable fall.

On December 11, Rabe found that Chinese soldiers were still residing in areas of the Safety Zone, meaning that it became an intended target for Japanese attack despite the majority being innocent civilians.

Rabe commented on how efforts to remove these Chinese troops failed and Japanese soldiers began to lob grenades into the refugee zone. Although the massacre is generally described as having occurred over a six-week period after the fall of Nanjing, the crimes committed by the Japanese army were not limited to that period.

Many atrocities were reported to have been committed as the Japanese army advanced from Shanghai to Nanjing. According to one Japanese journalist embedded with Imperial forces at the time: [27].

The reason that the [10th Army] is advancing to Nanjing quite rapidly is due to the tacit consent among the officers and men that they could loot and rape as they wish.

The novel itself was based on interviews that Ishikawa conducted with troops in Nanjing in January Perhaps the most notorious atrocity was a killing contest between two Japanese officers as reported in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun and the English-language Japan Advertiser.

The contest—a race between the two officers to see who could kill people first using only a sword—was covered much like a sporting event with regular updates on the score over a series of days.

In , historian Bob Tadashi Wakabayashi concurred with certain Japanese scholars who had argued that the contest was a concocted story, with the collusion of the soldiers themselves for the purpose of raising the national fighting spirit.

In , a Tokyo district judge dismissed a suit by the families of the lieutenants, stating that "the lieutenants admitted the fact that they raced to kill people" and that the story cannot be proven to be clearly false.

The Nanjing garrison force set fire to buildings and houses in the areas close to Xiakuan to the north as well as in the environs of the eastern and southern city gates.

Many Westerners were living in the city at that time, conducting trade or on missionary trips. As the Japanese army approached Nanjing, most of them fled the city, leaving 27 foreigners.

Five of these were journalists who remained in the city a few days after it was captured, leaving the city on December Fifteen of the remaining 22 foreigners formed a committee, called the International Committee for the Nanking Safety Zone in the western quarter of the city.

German businessman John Rabe was elected as its leader, in part because of his status as a member of the Nazi Party and the existence of the German-Japanese bilateral Anti-Comintern Pact.

The Japanese government had previously agreed not to attack parts of the city that did not contain Chinese military forces, and the members of the Committee managed to persuade the Chinese government to move their troops out of the area.

In a memorandum for the palace rolls, Hirohito singled Prince Yasuhiko Asaka out for censure as the one imperial kinsman whose attitude was "not good.

On December 5, Asaka left Tokyo by plane and arrived at the front three days later. He met with division commanders, lieutenant-generals Kesago Nakajima and Heisuke Yanagawa , who informed him that the Japanese troops had almost completely surrounded , Chinese troops in the vicinity of Nanjing and that preliminary negotiations suggested that the Chinese were ready to surrender.

Prince Asaka is alleged to have issued an order to "kill all captives," thus providing official sanction for the crimes which took place during and after the battle.

While the extent of Prince Asaka's responsibility for the massacre remains a matter of debate, the ultimate sanction for the massacre and the crimes committed during the invasion of China were issued in Emperor Hirohito 's ratification of the Japanese army's proposition to remove the constraints of international law on the treatment of Chinese prisoners on August 5, The Japanese military continued to move forward, breaching the last lines of Chinese resistance, and arriving outside the city gates of Nanjing on December 9.

At noon on December 9, the Japanese military dropped leaflets into the city, urging the city of Nanjing to surrender within 24 hours, promising "no mercy" if the offer is refused.

In the meantime, members of the Committee contacted Tang and proposed a plan for three-day cease-fire, during which the Chinese troops could withdraw without fighting while the Japanese troops would stay in their present position.

John Rabe boarded the U. The Japanese awaited an answer to their demand for surrender but no response was received from the Chinese by the deadline on December General Iwane Matsui waited another hour before issuing the command to take Nanjing by force.

The Japanese army mounted its assault on the Nanjing walls from multiple directions; the SEF's 16th Division attacked three gates on the eastern side, the 6th Division of the 10A launched its offensive on the western walls, and the SEF's 9th Division advanced into the area in-between.

On December 12, under heavy artillery fire and aerial bombardment, General Tang Sheng-chi ordered his men to retreat.

What followed was nothing short of chaos. Some Chinese soldiers stripped civilians of their clothing in a desperate attempt to blend in, and many others were shot by the Chinese supervisory unit as they tried to flee.

On 13 December, the 6th and the th Divisions of the Japanese Army were the first to enter the city, facing little military resistance.

Simultaneously, the 9th Division entered nearby Guanghua Gate, and the 16th Division entered the Zhongshan and Taiping gates. That same afternoon, two small Japanese Navy fleets arrived on both sides of the Yangtze River.

Japanese troops pursued the retreating Chinese army units, primarily in the Xiakuan area to the north of the city walls and around the Zijin Mountain in the east.

Although most sources suggest that the final phase of the battle consisted of a one-sided slaughter of Chinese troops by the Japanese, some Japanese historians maintain that the remaining Chinese military still posed a serious threat to the Japanese.

Prince Yasuhiko Asaka told a war correspondent later that he was in a very perilous position when his headquarters was ambushed by Chinese forces that were in the midst of fleeing from Nanjing east of the city.

On the other side of the city, the 11th Company of the 45th Regiment encountered some 20, Chinese soldiers who were making their way from Xiakuan.

The Japanese army conducted its mopping-up operation both inside and outside the Nanjing Safety Zone.

Since the area outside the safety zone had been almost completely evacuated, the mopping-up effort was concentrated in the safety zone. The safety zone, an area of 3.

The Japanese army leadership assigned sections of the safety zone to some units to separate alleged plain-clothed soldiers from the civilians.

With the relocation of the capital of China and the reports of Japanese brutality, most of the civilian population fled Nanjing out of fear. Wealthy families were the first to flee, leaving Nanjing in automobiles, followed by the evacuation of the middle class and then the poor, while only the destitute lowest class such as the ethnic Tanka boat people remained behind.

More than three quarters of the population had fled Nanjing before the Japanese arrived. Eyewitness accounts of Westerners and Chinese present at Nanjing in the weeks after the fall of the city say that, over the course of six weeks following the fall of Nanjing, Japanese troops engaged in mass rape , murder , torture , theft , arson , and other war crimes.

Some of these primary accounts, including the diaries of John Rabe and American Minnie Vautrin , came from foreigners who opted to stay behind to protect the Chinese civilians from harm.

Other accounts include first-person testimonies of Nanjing Massacre survivors, eyewitness reports of journalists both Western and Japanese , as well as the field diaries of military personnel.

A group of foreign expatriates headed by Rabe had formed a man International Committee on November 22 and mapped out the Nanjing Safety Zone in order to safeguard civilians in the city.

The city population of Nanjing inflated drastically during the mids, as many refugees fled from the Japanese aggression in the north.

Smythe , secretary of the International Committee and a professor of sociology at the University of Nanking , recorded the actions of the Japanese troops and filed complaints with the Japanese embassy.

The two men were described as vying to be the first to kill people with a sword before the capture of Nanjing. The contest continued because neither had killed people.

By the time they had arrived at Zijin Mountain , Noda had killed people while Mukai had killed people.

Both officers supposedly surpassed their goal during the heat of battle, making it impossible to determine which officer had actually won the contest.

Therefore, according to journalists Asami Kazuo and Suzuki Jiro, writing in the Tokyo Nichi Nichi Shimbun of December 13, they decided to begin another contest to kill people.

The International Military Tribunal for the Far East estimated that 20, women, including some children and the elderly, were raped during the occupation.

Young children were not exempt from these atrocities and were cut open to allow Japanese soldiers to rape them. On 19 December , the Reverend James M.

McCallum wrote in his diary: [61]. I know not where to end. Never I have heard or read such brutality. We estimate at least 1, cases a night and many by day.

In case of resistance or anything that seems like disapproval, there is a bayonet stab or a bullet. The whole Japanese army seems to be free to go and come as it pleases, and to do whatever it pleases.

On March 7, , Robert O. Wilson , a surgeon at the university hospital in the Safety Zone administrated by the United States, wrote in a letter to his family, "a conservative estimate of people slaughtered in cold blood is somewhere about ,, including of course thousands of soldiers that had thrown down their arms.

The slaughter of civilians is appalling. I could go on for pages telling of cases of rape and brutality almost beyond belief. Two bayoneted corpses are the only survivors of seven street cleaners who were sitting in their headquarters when Japanese soldiers came in without warning or reason and killed five of their number and wounded the two that found their way to the hospital.

Let me recount some instances occurring in the last two days. Last night the house of one of the Chinese staff members of the university was broken into and two of the women, his relatives, were raped.

Two girls, about 16, were raped to death in one of the refugee camps. In the University Middle School where there are 8, people the Japs came in ten times last night, over the wall, stole food, clothing, and raped until they were satisfied.

They bayoneted one little boy of eight who [had] five bayonet wounds including one that penetrated his stomach, a portion of omentum was outside the abdomen.

I think he will live. In his diary kept during the aggression against the city and its occupation by the Imperial Japanese Army , the leader of the Safety Zone, John Rabe , wrote many comments about Japanese atrocities.

For 17 December: [64]. Two Japanese soldiers have climbed over the garden wall and are about to break into our house. When I appear they give the excuse that they saw two Chinese soldiers climb over the wall.

When I show them my party badge, they return the same way. In one of the houses in the narrow street behind my garden wall, a woman was raped, and then wounded in the neck with a bayonet.

I managed to get an ambulance so we can take her to Kulou Hospital Last night up to 1, women and girls are said to have been raped, about girls at Ginling College …alone.

You hear nothing but rape. If husbands or brothers intervene, they're shot. What you hear and see on all sides is the brutality and bestiality of the Japanese soldiers.

There are also accounts of Japanese troops forcing families to commit incestuous acts. Iris Chang estimated that the number of Chinese women raped by Japanese soldiers ranged from 20, to 80, Following the capture of Nanjing, a massacre, which was perpetrated by the Imperial Japanese Army IJA , led to the deaths of up to 60, residents in the city, a figure difficult to precisely calculate due to the many bodies deliberately burnt, buried in mass graves, or deposited in the Yangtze River by the IJA.

Campbell, in an article published in the journal Sociological Theory , has described the Nanjing Massacre as a genocide , given the fact that residents were still slaughtered en masse during the aftermath, despite the successful and certain outcome in battle.

It is not until we tour the city that we learn the extent of destruction. We come across corpses every to yards. The bodies of civilians that I examined had bullet holes in their backs.

These people had presumably been fleeing and were shot from behind. The Japanese march through the city in groups of ten to twenty soldiers and loot the shops.

Hempel's hotel was broken into as well, as [was] almost every shop on Chung Shang and Taiping Road. On December 13, about 30 soldiers came to a Chinese house at No.

The door was open by the landlord, a Mohammedan named Ha. They killed him immediately with a revolver and also Mrs. Ha, who knelt before them after Ha's death, begging them not to kill anyone else.

Ha asked them why they killed her husband and they shot her. Hsia was dragged out from under a table in the guest hall where she had tried to hide with her 1 year old baby.

After being stripped and raped by one or more men, she was bayoneted in the chest, and then had a bottle thrust into her vagina. The baby was killed with a bayonet.

Some soldiers then went to the next room, where Mrs. Hsia's parents, aged 76 and 74, and her two daughters aged 16 and 14 [were]. They were about to rape the girls when the grandmother tried to protect them.

The soldiers killed her with a revolver. The grandfather grasped the body of his wife and was killed. The two girls were then stripped, the elder being raped by 2—3 men, and the younger by 3.

The older girl was stabbed afterwards and a cane was rammed in her vagina. The younger girl was bayoneted also but was spared the horrible treatment that had been meted out to her sister and mother.

The soldiers then bayoneted another sister of between 7—8, who was also in the room. The last murders in the house were of Ha's two children, aged 4 and 2 respectively.

The older was bayoneted and the younger split down through the head with a sword. Shuqin Xia, who claims to be the 7- or 8-year-old girl who appears in Magee's film.

Higashinakano had claimed in his book, Thorough Review of Nanjing Massacre , that she and the girl were different persons, and that she was not a witness of the Nanjing massacre, but he was unable to prove this at trial.

Pregnant women were targeted for murder, as their stomachs were often bayoneted, sometimes after rape. Tang Junshan, survivor and witness to one of the Japanese army's systematic mass killings, testified: [74].

The seventh and last person in the first row was a pregnant woman. The soldier thought he might as well rape her before killing her, so he pulled her out of the group to a spot about ten meters away.

As he was trying to rape her, the woman resisted fiercely. She gave a final scream as her intestines spilled out. Then the soldier stabbed the fetus, with its umbilical cord clearly visible, and tossed it aside.

Since records were not kept, estimates regarding the number of victims buried in the ditch range from 4, to 20, However, most scholars and historians consider the number to be more than 12, victims.

The Hui people , a minority Chinese group, the majority of them Muslim , suffered as well during the massacre. One mosque was found destroyed and others found to be "filled with dead bodies.

The directive also advised staff officers to no longer to use the term Prisoner of War. Soon after the fall of the city, Japanese troops made a thorough search for Chinese soldiers and summarily arrested thousands of young Chinese men.

Many were taken to the Yangtze River , where they were machine-gunned to death. What was probably the single largest massacre of Chinese troops, the Straw String Gorge Massacre, occurred along the banks of the Yangtze River on December For most of the morning, Japanese soldiers tied the POWs' hands together.

At dusk, the soldiers divided POWs into four columns and opened fire. Unable to escape, the POWs could only scream and thrash desperately. It took an hour for the sounds of death to stop and even longer for the Japanese to bayonet each individual.

The majority of the bodies were dumped directly into the Yangtze River. The Japanese troops gathered 1, Chinese soldiers and civilians at Taiping Gate and murdered them.

The victims were blown up with landmines , then doused with petrol and set on fire. The survivors were killed with bayonets.

American news correspondents F. Tillman Durdin and Archibald Steele reported seeing corpses of massacred Chinese soldiers forming mounds six feet high at the Nanjing Yijiang gate in the north.

He heard waves of machine-gun fire and witnessed the Japanese soldiers gun down some two hundred Chinese within ten minutes. He would later state that he had seen tank guns used on bound soldiers.

Two days later, in his report to The New York Times , Durdin stated that the alleys and street were filled with the dead, amongst them women and children.

Durdin stated "[i]t should be said that certain Japanese units exercised restraint and that certain Japanese officers tempered power with generosity and commission," but continued "the conduct of the Japanese army as a whole in Nanjing was a blot on the reputation of their country".

Ralph L. Phillips, a missionary , testified to the U. State Assembly Investigating Committee, that he was "forced to watch while the Japs disembowled a Chinese soldier" and "roasted his heart and liver and ate them.

One-third of the city was destroyed as a result of arson. According to reports, Japanese troops torched newly built government buildings as well as the homes of many civilians.

There was considerable destruction to areas outside the city walls. Soldiers pillaged from the poor and the wealthy alike.

The lack of resistance from Chinese troops and civilians in Nanjing meant that the Japanese soldiers were free to divide up the city's valuables as they saw fit.

This resulted in the widespread looting and burglary. The following is an excerpt:. In other words, on the 13th when your troops entered the city, we had nearly all the civilian population gathered in a Zone in which there had been very little destruction by stray shells and no looting by Chinese soldiers even in full retreat.

All we are asking in our protest is that you restore order among your troops and get the normal city life going as soon as possible.

In the latter process we are glad to cooperate in any way we can. But even last night between 8 and 9 p. The Japanese troops did respect the Zone to an extent; until the Japanese occupation, no shells entered that part of the city except a few stray shots.

During the chaos following the attack of the city, some were killed in the Safety Zone, but the crimes that occurred in the rest of the city were far greater by all accounts.

Rabe wrote that, from time to time, the Japanese would enter the Safety Zone at will, carry off a few hundred men and women, and either summarily execute them or rape and then kill them.

By February 5, , the International Committee had forwarded to the Japanese embassy a total of cases of murder, rape, and general disorder by Japanese soldiers that had been reported after the American, British and German diplomats had returned to their embassies: [87].

It is said that Rabe rescued between , and , Chinese people. Jonathan Spence writes: [90]. The Japanese soldiers, who had expected easy victory, instead had been fighting hard for months and had taken infinitely higher casualties than anticipated.

They were bored, angry, frustrated, tired. The Chinese women were undefended, their menfolk powerless or absent. The war, still undeclared, had no clear-cut goal or purpose.

Perhaps all Chinese, regardless of sex or age, seemed marked out as victims. A picture of a dead child. Probably taken by Bernhard Sindberg.

Prisoners being buried alive [91]. On December 18, , as General Iwane Matsui began to comprehend the full extent of the rape, murder, and looting in the city, he grew increasingly dismayed.

He reportedly told one of his civilian aides:. I now realize that we have unknowingly wrought a most grievous effect on this city. When I think of the feelings and sentiments of many of my Chinese friends who have fled from Nanjing and of the future of the two countries, I cannot but feel depressed.

I am very lonely and can never get in a mood to rejoice about this victory. Now, in the winter, the season gives time to reflect.

I offer my sympathy, with deep emotion, to a million innocent people. On New Year's Day, over a toast he confided to a Japanese diplomat: "My men have done something very wrong and extremely regrettable.

In late January , the Japanese army forced all refugees in the Safety Zone to return home, immediately claiming to have "restored order".

After the establishment of the weixin zhengfu the collaborating government in , order was gradually restored in Nanjing and atrocities by Japanese troops lessened considerably.

The last refugee camps were closed in May Matsui returned to retirement, but Prince Asaka remained on the Supreme War Council until the end of the war in August He was promoted to the rank of general in August , though he held no further military commands.

Estimates of the number of victims vary based on the definitions of the geographical range and the duration of the event. The extent of the atrocities is debated, [69] with numbers ranging from some Japanese claims of several hundred, [70] to the Chinese claim of a non-combatant death toll of , Hiroshi Yoshida concludes "more than ," in his book.

Mainstream scholars consider figures from 40, to over , to be an accurate estimate. According to the International Military Tribunal for the Far East , estimates made at a later date indicate that the total number of civilians and prisoners of war murdered in Nanjing and its vicinity during the first six weeks of the Japanese occupation was up to , These estimates are borne out by the figures of burial societies and other organizations, which testify to over , buried bodies.

These figures also do not take into account those persons whose bodies were destroyed by burning, drowning or other means, or whose bodies were interred in mass graves.

According to the verdict of the Nanjing War Crimes Tribunal on 10 March , there are "more than , mass slaughtered civilians and Chinese soldiers killed by machine gun by the Japanese army, whose corpses have been burned to destroy proof.

Besides, we count more than , victims of barbarian acts buried by the charity organizations. We thus have a total of more than , victims.

Some researchers estimate that between 40, and 60, people were killed, which corresponds to the figures from three sources; one is the Red Army's official journal of the time, Hangdibao and another is that of Miner Searle Bates of the International Safety Zone Committee, and the third is the aforementioned figure written by John Rabe in a letter.

Moreover, many troops of captured Chinese soldiers were led out of the city and down to the Yangtze, where they were summarily executed.

But, as noted, no one actually counted the dead. The casualty count of , was first promulgated in January by Harold Timperley , a journalist in China during the Japanese invasion, based on reports from contemporary eyewitnesses.

In December , newly declassified U. According to the archives research "The telegrams sent by the U. In the Japan-China Joint History Research Committee meeting, scholars from the Japanese side set the maximum possible number of civilian victims at ,, with estimates of around 40, or 20, The Chinese scholars of the committee maintained that at least , were killed.

The most conservative viewpoint is that the geographical area of the incident should be limited to the few km 2 of the city known as the Safety Zone, where the civilians gathered after the invasion.

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